May 25: Monday: First Government Day (Día de la Revolución de Mayo) June 15: Monday: Paso a la ... Below is a list of recent news and updates related to Argentina public holidays, national holidays, government holidays and bank holidays (note that this newsfeed is delayed by 30 days). States. [92] This scene lifted the revolutionaries' spirits and led to frenzied applause. [78] Saavedra, called by Viamonte, joined the meeting,[78] which involved military and civilian leaders. [180] In 1814, the second triumvirate was replaced by the authority of the Supreme Director. The uprising there marked the beginning … [141], On the morning of May 25, in spite of bad weather,[142] a crowd gathered in the Plaza de la Victoria, as did the militia led by Domingo French and Antonio Beruti. [145] It was rumored that the Cabildo might reject Cisneros' resignation. [108] The main themes of the debate were the legitimacy of the government and the authority of the Viceroy. [233], A representation of a cabildo is used on Argentine 25-cent coins,[234] and an image of the Sun of May appears on the 5-cent coin. [158] Beruti did not accept any further delays, and threatened to call people to arms. [107] There was no secret ballot; votes were heard one at a time and recorded in the minutes. Six years later, the representatives of all the Argentine provinces met and officially declared our independence on July 9, 1816. It celebrates the constitution of the first government that became independent from the colonial Spaniards after the May Revolution in 1810. [8], The Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with the use of plateways, canals and steam power. [184] Until then, the conception of the common good prevailed: while royal authority was fully respected, if an instruction from the crown of Spain was considered detrimental to the common good of the local population, it was half-met or simply ignored. In other cities similar events are sponsored by the government, with dance, music, and art exhibitions as Argentineans celebrate the birth of their country. [7] Books from the United States found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, owing to the proximity of Venezuela to the United States and the West Indies. [41] The population did not allow Rafael de Sobremonte to continue as Viceroy. [25] This was in part because the clergy controlled the entire educational system in Spanish America, which led the population to hold the same conservative ideas and follow the same customs as in Spain. more about this country [117], The priest Juan Nepomuceno Solá then proposed that the Cabildo should receive the provisional command, until the formation of a governing junta made up of representatives from all populations of the Viceroyalty. [126] This proposal received 35 votes, and sought simply to replace Cisneros with Huidobro: Huidobro was the most senior military officer, and thus the natural candidate under current laws to replace the viceroy in the lack of a new appointment from Spain. [162] The May Revolution lacked a clear leader as other regions of Latin America; the secretary Mariano Moreno led the initial phase of the government, but he was removed shortly afterwards. The reason and the rule must be equal for everybody. The following table lists the date and name for select national holidays in countries around the world. [61] On July 16, the La Paz revolution, led by Colonel Pedro Domingo Murillo, deposed the Governor of La Paz and elected a new junta. [28], The Liniers administration was popular among criollos, but not among peninsulars such as the merchant Martín de Álzaga and the Governor of Montevideo, Francisco Javier de Elío. [95] He thought the violence should be stopped and that radical measures such as the assassination of Cisneros should be prevented, but he also thought that the troops would mutiny if the demonstrations were suppressed. [140] Chiclana felt encouraged when Saavedra resigned, and started to request signatures for a manifesto about the will of the people. Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity 12 October 2020. Toggle navigation. Find the day, month, and year of inception for independence, revolution, flag, and founding days of more than 100 nations. [38][39] The project was resisted by Viceroy Liniers, most peninsulars, and some criollos, including Cornelio Saavedra and the lawyers Mariano Moreno and Juan José Paso. It wasn’t until July 9, 1816 that true independence from Spain was declared, following the example of other nations like Peru, Uruguay, and Paraguay. On May 25th 1810, a small revolution took place in Buenos Aires. [150] The Cabildo argued that Buenos Aires had no right to break the political system of the viceroyalty without discussing it with the other provinces; French and Chiclana replied that the call for a Congress had already been considered. The Primera Junta was formed by representatives from Buenos Aires, who sent word to other cities in the viceroyalty and asked them to send deputies. The Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, and the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it. America should only be ruled by the natives when there is no longer a Spaniard there. [78] People who sympathized with the absolutist government were harassed, but the fights were of little consequence because nobody was allowed to take muskets or swords out of the barracks. [86], Lezica informed Cisneros of the request for an open cabildo and the Viceroy consulted Leiva, who spoke in favor of it. [92], After the play, the revolutionaries returned to Peña's house. [74] When Cornelio Saavedra, head of the regiment of Patricians, was informed of this news, he decided that it was finally the ideal time to take action against Cisneros. [49] A small number of criollos, notably Mariano Moreno, supported the mutiny,[47] but most of them did not. [203] Thus, there are a number of conflicting perspectives about it, because different authors highlight different aspects. Type. The Junta was defeated in 1814 at the Battle of Rancagua, and the subsequent Reconquista of Chile would make it a royalist stronghold once more. [156] The people in the plaza saw it as a favorable omen for the revolution. [53], The Supreme Central Junta replaced Liniers with the naval officer Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, a veteran of the Battle of Trafalgar, to end the political turmoil in the Río de la Plata. [132] It stipulated that the Junta could not exercise judicial power, which was reserved for the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires; that Cisneros could not act without the support of the other members of the Junta; that the Cabildo could dismiss anyone who neglected his duty; that the Cabildo's consent would be required to create new taxes; that the Junta would sanction a general amnesty for those who had aired opinions at the open cabildo; and that the Junta would invite the other cities to send delegates. [59] Álzaga was not freed, but his sentence was commuted to house arrest. [126] Many of them required the new authorities to be elected by the Cabildo. [1], However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. [102] The principle of retroversion of the sovereignty to the people stated that, in the absence of the legitimate monarch, power returned to the people; they were entitled to form a new government. [186] The new country of Argentina lacked an established concept of national identity capable to unite the population under a common idea of statehood. National Bike To School Day – C hanges Annually May 5, 2021 National Skilled Trades Day – First Wednesday in May National Interpreter Appreciation Day – First Wednesday in May Argentina National Day 2017 Happy National Day Argentina! [165] To put an end to these activities, the Junta assembled Cisneros and all the members of the Royal Audiencia on the pretext that their lives were in danger, and sent them into exile aboard the British ship Dart. [127] Juan Nepomuceno Solá proposed a junta composed of delegates from all the provinces of the viceroyalty, while the Cabildo should govern in the interim; this proposal received nearly 20 votes. [12] When that failed, they chose to promote the Spanish-American aspirations of emancipation from Spain. [125] His proposal had nearly 30 votes. May 25. It commemorates the May Revolution of 1810 and the establishment of the country's … King George Island, which is claimed by Argentina, Britain and Chile, as part of the Argentine Antarctica, the British Antarctic Territory and the Chilean Antarctic Territory respectively, is referred to as Isla 25 de Mayo in Argentina. [11] To achieve their economic objectives, Britain initially tried to invade Rio de la Plata and conquer key cities in Spanish America. National Day is a public holiday in Argentina. [150] The Cabildo called the commanders to deliberate with them. [196] These authors' views were treated as canonical until the end of the 19th century, when the proximity of the centennial encouraged authors to seek new perspectives. [44] Liniers armed the entire population of Buenos Aires, including criollos and slaves, and defeated a second British invasion attempt in 1807. [169] This reduced the power of the counter-revolutionary army by means of desertions and sabotage. [57] Javier de Elío accepted the authority of the new Viceroy, and dissolved the Junta of Montevideo. [158] Facing the prospect of further violence, the popular request was read aloud and immediately ratified by those present. [217] Later conflicts between Buenos Aires, Montevideo and Artigas led to internal conflicts on the British front, between Strangford and the Portuguese regent John VI of Portugal. [222] Some points that would justify the idea would be the inclusion of Larrea, Matheu, and Belgrano in the Junta and the later appearance of José de San Martín: Larrea and Matheu were Spanish, Belgrano studied for many years in Spain,[223] and San Martín had spent most of his adult life waging war in Spain against the French. The cities of Rosario (Santa Fe), Junín (Buenos Aires) and Resistencia (Chaco) have eponymous squares. Find event and ticket information. 25 de Mayo: National Day. [231] The Argentina Centennial and the Argentina Bicentennial were celebrated in 1910 and 2010. The Andes provided an effective natural barrier between the Argentine revolutionaries and Chile, so there was no military confrontation between them until the Crossing of the Andes, led by José de San Martín in 1817, a campaign that resulted in the defeat of the Chilean royalists. [174] José Gervasio Artigas led them, and kept Montevideo under siege. Napoleon Bonaparte's takeover of Spain sparked the May Revolution in Argentina. [149] Leiva and Lezica requested that someone who could act as spokesman for the people should join them inside the hall and explain the people's desires. [88][102] All noteworthy religious and civilian people were present, as well as militia commanders and many prominent residents. Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís found the River of Silver in 1516, but was killed as he tried to go up river. Asunción del Paraguay rejected the Junta and swore loyalty to the Council of Regency. Mon. CW. The junta would eventually become the country of Argentina. [166] Captain Mark Brigut was instructed to avoid American ports and deliver all of them directly to the Canary Islands. This is a National holiday which is celebrated every May 25. [22] Events developed at a slower pace than in the United States independence movement. The fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state. [90] The guards let them pass unannounced, and they found Cisneros playing cards with Brigadier Quintana, prosecutor Caspe and aide Coicolea. The highest authority would be transferred temporarily to the Cabildo until the appointment of a governing junta. On this day, 201 years ago, thirty three congressmen gathered in Tucuman, Argentina and declared it … [204] Mitre, for example, referred to The Representation of the Landowners (an 1809 economic report by Mariano Moreno) and the role of the merchants to support the view that the May Revolution intended to obtain free trade and economic integration with Europe;[205] right-wing revisionists center around Saavedra and the social customs of the time to describe the revolution under conservative principles;[205] and left-wing revisionists use the example of Moreno, Castelli and the rioters led by French and Beruti to describe it as a radical revolution. [121] However, there were no problems and this emergency plan was not implemented. [111][132] Four other members were appointed to the Junta: criollos Cornelio Saavedra and Juan José Castelli, and peninsulars Juan Nepomuceno Solá and José Santos Inchaurregui. [140] Moreno refused any further involvement, but Castelli and Peña trusted that he would eventually join them if events unfolded as they expected. [232] Thus the unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia canceled the celebration of July 9, and the federalist Juan Manuel de Rosas allowed it again, but maintained the May celebrations. Alberdi thought that "the Argentine revolution is a chapter of the Hispanoamerican revolution, as also of the Spanish one, as also of the French and European one". [61] An army of 1,000 men sent from Buenos Aires found no resistance at Chuquisaca, took control of the city and overthrew the Junta. [210] The purpose of such a deception would have been to gain time to strengthen the position of the patriotic cause and avoid reactions that may have led to a counter-revolution, by making it appear that monarchical authority was still respected and that no revolution had taken place. [216] This pressure was exerted by Lord Strangford, the British ambassador at the court of Rio de Janeiro; he expressed support for the Junta, but under the condition that "...the behavior is consistent, and that [the] Capital [is] retained on behalf of Mr. Dn. May 25 is a national day in Argentina, known as First Patriotic Government, with the character of a public holiday. On the 25 th of May 1810, after a week of events taking place in Buenos Aires which would eventually be known as the May Revolution, the first independent government of Argentina, La Primera Junta, was established, bringing the nation one step closer to its independence. May 25: Revolution Day June 17: General Martín Manuel de G ü emes Memorial Day June 20: General Belgrano Memorial Day (sometimes known as Flag Day, celebrating the creation of Argentina's national … [89] Finally, he pointed out that the Supreme Central Junta that appointed Cisneros as Viceroy no longer existed, so he rejected Cisneros' legitimacy as Viceroy and denied him the protection of the troops under his command. [36], Martín de Álzaga began a mutiny to remove Liniers. The following are the national public holidays and other observances of Argentina. Wed. May 25. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. [153] Leiva agreed, convinced the other members, and the people returned to the Plaza. [71] His proposal was to make a government body that would rule on behalf of Ferdinand VII, together with Viceroy of Peru José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, Governor of Potosí Francisco de Paula Sanz and President of the Royal Audiencia of Charcas Vicente Nieto. [98], Belgrano's departure enraged the crowd, as he did not explain what had happened, and the people feared a betrayal. Today the country celebrates its independence with the celebration of Revolution day. [114] He said "...there shall be no doubt that it is the people that create authority or command. Much later in 1810, Spain was invaded by Napoleonic forces. The United States' declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1776 led criollos (Spanish peoples born in the Americas) to believe that revolution and independence from Spain were feasible. At first this added to the conflicts between Buenos Aires and the provinces during the Argentine Civil War, because the date in May related to Buenos Aires and the date of July 9 related to the whole country. [155] But, because of the late hour and the weather, the number of people in the plaza had declined. See also: upcoming public holidays in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, MERCOSUR, Paraguay, South America, Uruguay and worldwide. [45] They requested the Spanish authorities appoint a new viceroy. [41] He had escaped to Cordoba with the public treasury while the battle was still in progress. [151] As had happened several times in the last few days, Romero explained that the soldiers would mutiny if forced to fight against the rioters on behalf of Cisneros. Liberal ideals in the political and economic fields developed and spread through the Atlantic Revolutions across most of the Western world. [153] They feared that the demonstrators could overrun the building and reach them. [74] They spread the news among other patriots and challenged the legitimacy of the Viceroy, who had been appointed by the fallen junta. [21] Most local authorities allowed this smuggling as a lesser evil, even though it was illegal, and it occasionally equalled in volume the legal commerce with Spain. [213], The change was potentially favorable for Britain, as trade with the cities of the area was facilitated, without the monopoly that Spain had maintained over their colonies for centuries. [50] They felt that Álzaga wanted to remove the Viceroy to avoid his political authority while keeping the social differences between criollos and peninsulars unchanged. [142] However, there is no unanimous view among historians about the authorship of the document. [16] This also led to Spain switching allegiances from France to Britain. [188] The brief existence of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, which had lasted barely 38 years, impeded the consolidation of a patriotic feeling and failed to bring a sense of community to all of the population. [153] The demonstration overran the Cabildo again, and reached the hall of deliberations. [109] He spoke after Riega, and replied that the American people should assume control of their government until Ferdinand VII could return to the throne. The Spaniards of Spain have lost their land. [105], A merchant, José Ignacio Rezábal, attended the open cabildo but, in a letter to the priest Julián S. de Agüero, said that he had some doubts which were shared by other people close to him. Most criollos thought that peninsulars had undeserved advantages and received preferential treatment in politics and society. News of these events arrived in Buenos Aires on May 18, brought by British ships. So I suggest we vote: that we replace the Viceroy with a new authority that will be subject to the parent state if it is saved from the French, and independent if Spain is finally subjugated.

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